Pozzo, from Latin puteus, "well", first appeared in a document of 1190.
The hamlet of Pozzo was part of the parish church of S. Giorgio and for civil matters it was subjected to the jurisdiction of the earls of Spilimbergo.
A small, mainly agricultural hamlet, it has followed the historical events of the territory. It was more directly involved in the Napoleonic period, as other villages on the bank of the Tagliamento river, where some battles were fought.
Nowadays it is known for the Museum of Peasant Culture, which preserves objects that testify of the life of local people in the latest centuries.
The Parish Church
The early church (Santa Sabata of Pozzo) mentioned in documents of 1281 and demolished at the end of 1700, stood along the road which from Pozzo leads to Aurava; on the place a big concrete cross was placed.
Works for the present church (fig. 31), dedicated to the Saints Urban and Sabina, started in 1801 and it was consecrated in 1803. It has an 18th century facade with Neo-classical features: coupled pilasters surmounted by a tympanum with jutting out cornices.
The interior has a single nave. The high altar has two wooden statues of St. Stephen and St. John the Baptist placed at the sides The apse is decorated with a mosaic work by Attilio Bratti (1988) portraying the image of Christ, and with an oil painting representing the Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes by Guglielmo Maniaghi (1992), on the right wall.
In the nave there is the altar of the Virgin Mary, St Antony of Padua and St. Frances on the right and opposite this one the altar dedicated to the patron Saints Urban and Sabina (fig. 32) of 1531. Carved out from a single stone block, originally made for the old church, it is attributed to Donato Casella, Lombard stonecutter, and Pilacorte's son-in-law. The altar, which on the base bears the coat of arms of the Spilimbergo and a bas-relief portraying the major camerlengo, is divided into three sections by fluted columns; in the centre the Virgin with Child, at the sides the Saints Urban and Sabina; above there is a shell with praying angels terminating with a small niche with the image of Jesus Laid in the Tomb.
The work, complex in its composition, shows, slender and lively figures with light garments and traces of the original colouring.
It stands on the Roggia di Lestans (stream of Lestans), also called Roggia dei Mulini (stream of the Mills), a branch of the Cosa stream, which flows east of the village, where there was also an open wash-house (fig. 33).
It was built by Osvaldo Partenio in 1855 and designed by the engineer G. B. Cavedalis, with three millstones and wheels, a machine to husk barley with a smaller wheel and a sifter run by another wheel.
In 1861 it was recorded in the Austrian land register as a” wheat and barley mill” legally belonging to Luigi and Giuseppe Partenio. In 1883 they sold it to Giordano Marcolini who handed it over to Giovanni, Toscano and Andrea Micoli. In 1897 it was purchased by Luigi Secco. In 1928 a turbine substituted the hydraulic wheels. The sons Giuseppe and Erminio Secco continued the activity until 1991.
Recently the Circolo Culturale e Ricreativo of Pozzo has reactivated the whole complex, which is still owned by the heirs of the Secco family
Piazza Sant’Urbano and the Museum of Peasant Culture
In the square, named after the patron saint of Pozzo, a mosaic monument is placed. It was made by Nane Zavagno (1959) and dedicated to the Unknown Soldier.
The wall of the house at n. 1 is decorated with a “devotional fresco” representing the Virgin with Child and Four Biblical Scenes. It is one of the several frescos that can be admired in the houses of the hamlet, evidence of the deep popular religious beliefs of the past (fig. 34).
Opposite the church, in a restored farmhouse, the Museum of Peasant Culture is located. It was opened in 1982. The building is part of a long row of houses which date back to the 19th century.
It is owned by the municipality of S. Giorgio and displays tools and utensils related to peasant life, collected by Gelindo Lenarduzzi over 20 years of his life, which testify of the farmer's life in the 19th and 20th centuries and its evolution.
In the course of the years new tools have been added to the collection, resulting from donations. Most of the material is related to the daily life of local people in the latest centuries: furniture and utensils for the house, tools used by farmers in ploughing, sowing, harvesting, haymaking, wine-making, spinning, weaving, breeding. The collection of craftsmen's tools is also rich: the tools of the carpenter, of the blacksmith, of the mason, of the cooper, of the miller, of the shoemaker, of the basket maker, of the tailor. In the yard bigger equipment is displayed: a beautiful collection of farm carts of the first half of the 20th century; a collection of harrows, sowing machines, ploughs, a reaper-binder, a threshing machines, a tractor "Landini testa calda" and a hay baler (fig. 35). Noteworthy is also the gig, drawn by a horse, used as a means of transport for people.
The exposition is completed by reproductions of old photos which portray the most significant moments of rural life.
The museum opens on the 1st and 3rd Sunday of the month, from 10.30 to 12.30. For further information visit the website www.comune.sangiorgiodellarichinvelda.pn.it